Basic Hydraulic Cylinder Component Parts You Need To Know

Basic Hydraulic Cylinder Component Parts You Need To Know

The hydraulic cylinder, also known as a linear hydraulic motor. This engineering marvel enables all your heavy engineering vehicles to operate. It enables your employees to complete construction, mining and farming related tasks quickly and efficiently by the application through those machines.


The hydraulic cylinder barrel is designed to contain the pressure of the cylinder. This barrel is made from honed tubes which are made from Cold Drawn Seamless Tubes. This steel has to be suitable to be honed. Honing is an abrasive machining process used to produce a precision and smooth surface on the metal that is being honed. Honing is one of the main processes to manufacture a hydraulic cylinder tube. The inside surface of the tube should have a smooth inside surface, be durable and have a high precision tolerance.


The cylinder head, also known as the “blind end”. This part is inside the cylinder barrel and is not exposed to daylight, hence the name. This part encloses the pressure chamber from one end of the cylinder. The cylinder head has the option for an integrated rod sealing arrangement or an option for a seal gland which we will discuss in this article in detail.


This part encloses the pressure from the other end of the cylinder barrel. This part is also referred to as the rod end. This can be identified by an opening where the cylinder rod connects to. The gland is also used as a cylinder mounting component. Examples of these mounting components are the cap flange, gland trunnion and the gland clevis. The gland size is determined by the bending stress resistance required by the hydraulic cylinder.


The piston inside the hydraulic cylinder is used to separate the pressure zones inside the barrel. The piston is machined to fit rubber or metallic seals which can be single-acting or double-acting.  The piston rod is attached through threads, bolts or nuts to transfer the linear motion. Depending on where pressure is applied on either side of the piston will cause the hydraulic cylinder to extend or retract.


Also known as the cylinder rod. This is made from hard chrome plated cold rolled steel. The rod is attached to the piston and the cylinder head. The piston rod connects the hydraulic cylinder to the machine component that is used to do work. The piston rod is made from hard chrome for its properties to be grounded and polished very well. This ensures a reliable seal which prevents leaks.


The hydraulic cylinder gland is fitted with a number of seals that prevent the pressured oil from leaking past the interface of the cylinder rod and the cylinder head.


The seals used within the seal gland are made specifically according to the cylinder working pressure, speed of the cylinder, operating temperature and the application of the hydraulic cylinder. These are dynamic seals and can be single-acting or double-acting. Hydraulic cylinders used in lower temperature environments use Elastomer seals made from nitrile rubber. If your hydraulic cylinders are used at a higher temperature make sure your seals are made of Fluorocarbon Viton as this is better suited for those temperatures. The wiper and scraper seals are used to eliminate contaminants such as dirt and water which can cause extensive damage to the hydraulic cylinder walls. The wear bands are used to avoid metal to metal contact, which if they are absent, will also cause damage to the cylinder walls.

Posted in Hydraulic Knowledges.